Since 1958, catheter angiography has assumed the role of gold standard for vascular imaging, despite the invasive nature of the procedure. Less invasive techniques for vascular imaging, such as computed tomographic angiography (CTA), have been developed and have matured in conjunction with developments in catheter arteriography. In a few cases, such as imaging, the aorta and the pulmonary arteries, CTA has supplanted catheter angiography as the gold standard. The expanding role of CTA emphasizes the need for deep, broad-based understanding of physical principles. This review describes CT hardware and associated software for angiography. The fundamentals of CTA physics are complemented with several clinical examples.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.