Background: Correction of hyperglycaemia and prevention of glucotoxicity are important objectives in the management of type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, reduces renal glucose reabsorption in an insulin-independent manner. We assessed the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients who have inadequate glycaemic control with metformin.
Methods: In this phase 3, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial, 546 adults with type 2 diabetes who were receiving daily metformin (>/=1500 mg per day) and had inadequate glycaemic control were randomly assigned to receive one of three doses of dapagliflozin (2.5 mg, n=137; 5 mg, n=137; or 10 mg, n=135) or placebo (n=137) orally once daily. Randomisation was computer generated and stratified by site, implemented with a central, telephone-based interactive voice response system. Patients continued to receive their pre-study metformin dosing. The primary outcome was change from baseline in haemoglobin A(1c)(HbA(1c)) at 24 weeks. All randomised patients who received at least one dose of double-blind study medication and who had both a baseline and at least one post-baseline measurement (last observation carried forward) were included in the analysis. Data were analysed by use of ANCOVA models. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00528879.
Findings: 534 patients were included in analysis of the primary endpoint (dapagliflozin 2.5 mg, n=135; dapagliflozin 5 mg, n=133; dapagliflozin 10 mg, n=132; placebo, n=134). At week 24, mean HbA(1c) had decreased by -0.30% (95% CI -0.44 to -0.16) in the placebo group, compared with -0.67% (-0.81 to -0.53, p=0.0002) in the dapagliflozin 2.5 mg group, -0.70% (-0.85 to -0.56, p<0.0001) in the dapagliflozin 5 mg group, and -0.84% (-0.98 to -0.70, p<0.0001) in the dapagliflozin 10 mg group. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia occurred in similar proportions of patients in the dapagliflozin (2-4%) and placebo groups (3%). Signs, symptoms, and other reports suggestive of genital infections were more frequent in the dapagliflozin groups (2.5 mg, 11 patients [8%]; 5 mg, 18 [13%]; 10 mg, 12 [9%]) than in the placebo group (seven [5%]). 17 patients had serious adverse events (four in each of the dapagliflozin groups and five in the placebo group).
Interpretation: Addition of dapagliflozin to metformin provides a new therapeutic option for treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients who have inadequate glycaemic control with metformin alone.
Funding: Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca.
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