Early detection and accurate monitoring of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is likely to improve care and decrease the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a new diagnostic tool, we examined the retention of uremic solutes as a simpler, more accurate method to assess renal function. To achieve this, we comprehensively evaluated these solutes in CKD patients. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we found 22 cations and 30 anions that accumulated significantly as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreased. These compounds included 9 cations and 27 anions that were newly identified in this study. In contrast, we also found 7 cations (2 new) and 5 anions (all new) that decrease significantly as eGFR declines. We evaluated each substance for its suitability to detect early CKD stage. Compounds that are highly correlated with eGFR and whose plasma concentration changed in a manner approximated by the first-degree equation are excellent candidates for detecting CKD and identifying uremic toxins that might aggravate kidney function in the early stage of CKD. These results identify a number of uremic compounds, many of which are novel and which predict worsening renal function. These compounds provide diagnostic information and may be targets for therapies designed to treat the complications of CKD patients.