Supplementation of iron alone and combined with vitamins improves haematological status, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and oxidative stress in anaemic pregnant women

Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;104(11):1655-61. doi: 10.1017/S000711451000259X. Epub 2010 Jul 9.


Pregnancy is a condition exhibiting increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and Fe plays a central role in generating harmful oxygen species. The objective of the present study is to investigate the changes in haematological status, oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in anaemic pregnant women after Fe supplementation with and without combined vitamins. The study was a 2 months double-blind, randomised trial. Pregnant women (n 164) were allocated to four groups: group C was the placebo control group; group I was supplemented daily with 60 mg Fe (ferrous sulphate) daily; group IF was supplemented daily with Fe plus 400 μg folic acid; group IM was supplemented daily with Fe plus 2 mg retinol and 1 mg riboflavin, respectively. After the 2-month trial, Hb significantly increased by 15.8, 17.3 and 21.8 g/l, and ferritin by 2.8, 3.6 and 11.0 μg/l, in the I, IF and IM groups compared with placebo. Polarisation (ρ) and microviscosity (η) decreased significantly in other groups compared with placebo, indicating an increase in membrane fluidity. Significant decreases of ρ and η values compared with group C were 0.033 and 0.959 for group I, 0.037 and 1.074 for group IF and 0.064 and 1.865 for group IM, respectively. In addition, significant increases of glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases of malondialdehyde were shown in all treated groups, as well as increases of plasma retinol and urine riboflavin in group IM. The findings show that supplementation with Fe and particularly in combination with vitamins could improve the haematological status as well as oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anemia / drug therapy*
  • Anemia / metabolism
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Erythrocyte Membrane / drug effects*
  • Erythrocyte Membrane / metabolism
  • Female
  • Ferritins / blood
  • Folic Acid / pharmacology
  • Folic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / blood
  • Hemoglobins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Iron / pharmacology
  • Iron / therapeutic use*
  • Iron, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Micronutrients / pharmacology
  • Micronutrients / therapeutic use
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic / drug therapy*
  • Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic / metabolism
  • Riboflavin / pharmacology
  • Riboflavin / therapeutic use
  • Riboflavin / urine
  • Viscosity
  • Vitamin A / blood
  • Vitamin A / pharmacology
  • Vitamin A / therapeutic use
  • Vitamins / pharmacology
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use*
  • Young Adult


  • Hemoglobins
  • Iron, Dietary
  • Micronutrients
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin A
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Ferritins
  • Folic Acid
  • Iron
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Riboflavin