M=N(alpha) Cycloaddition and N(alpha)-N(beta) Insertion in the Reactions of Titanium Hydrazido Compounds With Alkynes: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study

J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Aug 4;132(30):10484-97. doi: 10.1021/ja1036513.


A combined experimental and DFT study of the reactions of diamide-amine supported titanium hydrazides with alkynes is presented. Reaction of Ti(N2N(py))(NNPh2)(py) (1, N2N(py) = (2-NC5H4)CMe(CH2NSiMe3)2) with terminal and internal aryl alkynes ArCCR (Ar = Ph or substituted phenyl, R = Me or H) at room temperature gave the fully authenticated azatitanacyclobutenes Ti(N2N(py)){N(NPh2)C(R)CAr} via ArCCR [2 + 2] cycloaddition to the Ti=N(alpha) bond of the hydrazide ligand. In contrast, reaction of 1 with PhCCMe at 60 degrees C, or of Ti(N2NMe)(NNPh2)(py) (11, N2NMe = MeN(CH2CH2NSiMe3)2) with RCCMe (R = Me, Ph or substituted phenyl) at room temperature or below, gave vinyl imido compounds of the type Ti(N2N(R')){NC(R)C(Me)NPh2}(py), in which RCCMe had undergone net insertion into the N(alpha)-N(beta) bond. These are the first examples of this type of reaction for any metal hydrazide. The reaction of 11 with PhCCMe had the activation parameters DeltaH(double dagger) = 18.8(4) kcal mol(-1), DeltaS(double dagger) = 1(1) cal mol(-1) K(-1) and DeltaG(298)(double dagger) = 18.5(7) kcal mol(-1). Mechanistic and DFT studies for 1 and 11 found that the N(alpha)-N(beta) insertion event is preceded by alkyne cycloaddition to Ti=N(alpha), and that N(alpha)-N(beta) bond "insertion" is really an intramolecular N(alpha) atom migration process within the azatitanacyclobutenes following intramolecular chelation of NPh2 of the hydrazide ligand. Electron-withdrawing aryl groups on ArCCMe stabilize the azatitanacyclobutenes and also promote a specific regiochemistry (ArC carbon bound to Ti). This in turn defines the regiochemistry of the overall N(alpha)-N(beta) insertion reaction (ArC carbon bound to N(alpha)). In contrast, electron-releasing aryl groups promote the final N(alpha) migration stage of the mechanism, and a Hammett analysis of the rates of insertion of (4-C6H4X)CCMe into the N(alpha)-N(beta) bond of 11 found a reaction constant, rho, of -0.74(5), consistent with NPA charge changes of ArC along the DFT reaction coordinate.