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, 202 (4), 576-84

Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence and Clearance Among US Blood Donors, 2006-2007: Associations With Birth Cohort, Multiple Pregnancies, and Body Mass Index

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Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence and Clearance Among US Blood Donors, 2006-2007: Associations With Birth Cohort, Multiple Pregnancies, and Body Mass Index

Edward L Murphy et al. J Infect Dis.

Abstract

Background: During the period 1992-1993, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (anti-HCV) among US blood donors was 0.36%, but contemporary data on the prevalence of antibody to HCV and the prevalence of HCV RNA are lacking.

Methods: We performed a large, cross-sectional study of blood donors at 6 US blood centers during 2006-2007. Anti-HCV was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay followed by immunoblot, and HCV RNA was measured with nucleic acid testing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were derived using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Of 959,281 donors, 695 had anti-HCV detected (prevalence, 0.072%). Of those with anti-HCV, 516 (74%) had test results positive for HCV RNA, and 179 (26%) had test results that were negative for HCV RNA. Compared with the prevalence during the period 1992-1993, prevalence during 2006-2007 was lower and peaked in older age groups. Anti-HCV was associated with a body mass index (BMI) >30 (aOR, 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.8), and among women, it was associated with higher gravidity (aOR for 5 vs 0 pregnancies, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9-5.4). HCV RNA negative status was associated with black race (aOR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7), having more than a high school education (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), and BMI >30 (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9).

Conclusions: Decreasing HCV prevalence is most likely attributable to culling of seropositive donors and a birth cohort effect. We found new associations between anti-HCV prevalence and gravidity and obesity. Recently discovered genetic factors may underlie differences in HCV RNA clearance in black donors.

Conflict of interest statement

1. The authors do not have a commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Prevalence of HCV antibody among U.S. blood donors, REDS 1992-93 (Panel A, data from Murphy et al. JAMA 1996) and current data from 2006-07 (Panel B).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Distribution of body mass index according to HCV infection status. Subjects with presumptive resolved HCV (antibody+/NAT-; blue line) are compared to chronically infected (antibody+/NAT+; red line) and never infected (antibody-/NAT-; green line) subjects

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