Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including cellular and organismal aging, migration, proliferation, senescence or death of normal and cancer cells, and stress resistance of stem cells. The forkhead homeobox type O (FOXO) transcription factors FOXO1, FOXO3a, and FOXO4 are critical mediators of the cellular responses to oxidative stress and have been implicated in many of the above ROS-regulated processes. In cancer cells they converge oxidative stress signaling to cell cycle arrest and cell death or promote a motile phenotype. Dependent on their posttranslational modifications FOXOs can also actively regulate the detoxification of cells from ROS and promote stress resistance. Thus, FOXO transcription factors are of vital importance in processes regulating tumor survival or progression, stem cell maintenance, age-related pathological processes, and lifespan extension.