The aim of this research was to identify bacterial isolates having the potential to improve intestinal barrier function. Lactobacillus plantarum strains and human oral isolates were screened for their ability to enhance tight junction integrity as measured by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay. Eight commercially used probiotics were compared to determine which had the greatest positive effect on TEER, and the best-performing probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, was used as a benchmark to evaluate the isolates. One isolate, L. plantarum DSM 2648, was selected for further study because it increased TEER 135% more than L. rhamnosus HN001. The ability of L. plantarum DSM 2648 to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions and adhere to intestinal cells was determined, and L. plantarum DSM 2648 performed better than L. rhamnosus HN001 in all the assays. Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 2648 was able to reduce the negative effect of Escherichia coli [enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)] O127:H6 (E2348/69) on TEER and adherence by as much as 98.75% and 80.18%, respectively, during simultaneous or prior coculture compared with EPEC incubation alone. As yet, the precise mechanism associated with the positive effects exerted by L. plantarum DSM 2648 are unknown, and may influence its use to improve human health and wellness.