Strategies for labeling proteins with PARACEST agents

Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Feb 1;19(3):1106-14. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.06.026. Epub 2010 Jun 18.


Reactive surface lysine groups on the monoclonal antibody (3G4) and on human serum albumin (HSA) were labeled with two different PARACEST chelates. Between 7.4 and 10.1 chelates were added per 3G4 molecule and between 5.6 and 5.9 chelates per molecule of HSA, depending upon which conjugation chemistry was used. The immunoreactivity of 3G4 as measured by ELISA assays was highly dependent upon the number of attached chelates: 88% immunoreactivity with 7.4 chelates per antibody versus only 17% immunoreactivity with 10.1 chelates per antibody. Upon conjugation to 3G4, the bound water lifetime of Eu-1 increased only marginally, up from 53μs for the non-conjugated chelate to 65-77μs for conjugated chelates. Conjugation of a chelate Eu-2 to HSA via a single side-chain group also resulted in little or no change in bound water lifetime (73-75μs for both the conjugated and non-conjugated forms). These data indicate that exchange of water molecules protons between the inner-sphere site on covalently attached PARACEST agent and bulk water is largely unaffected by the mode of attachment of the agent to the protein and likely its chemical surroundings on the surface of the protein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chelating Agents / chemical synthesis
  • Chelating Agents / chemistry*
  • Contrast Media / chemical synthesis
  • Contrast Media / chemistry*
  • Cyclams
  • Europium / chemistry
  • Heterocyclic Compounds / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Protein Binding
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Protons
  • Signal Transduction
  • Water / chemistry
  • Ytterbium / chemistry


  • Chelating Agents
  • Contrast Media
  • Cyclams
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Ligands
  • Proteins
  • Protons
  • Water
  • Europium
  • cyclen
  • Ytterbium