Measurement of the blood-brain barrier permeability and leakage space using dynamic MR imaging. 1. Fundamental concepts

Magn Reson Med. 1991 Feb;17(2):357-67. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910170208.


Leakage of Gd-DTPA through a defective blood-brain barrier is measured quantitatively using dynamic MRI scanning, in which repeated scans are made after a bolus injection. Image registration artifacts are minimized; a dose of 0.1 mM/kg and an IR sequence enable enhancement to be measured quantitatively. The triexponential enhancement curve is fitted to a theoretical model based on compartmental analysis. The transfer constant, or permeability surface area product per unit volume of tissue (k), and leakage space per unit volume of tissue (v1) are measured. Estimates for a quickly enhancing multiple sclerosis lesion are k = 0.050 min-1, v1 = 21%; for a slow one k = 0.013 min-1, v1 = 49%. This implies permeability in the range 4-17 x 10(-6) cm s-1, in broad agreement with other physiological methods. The method is noninvasive and can be used to make serial measurements in patients and in experimental animal models. The time course of pathological aspects of diseases with blood-brain barrier breakdown, such as multiple sclerosis, tumors, and infections (e.g., HIV) can be studied, along with their response to therapy. The measurements are of physiological variables and are therefore independent of imaging equipment and field.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / physiology*
  • Brain Diseases / blood
  • Brain Diseases / diagnosis
  • Brain Diseases / metabolism
  • Contrast Media*
  • Female
  • Gadolinium / blood
  • Gadolinium / pharmacokinetics*
  • Gadolinium DTPA
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* / methods
  • Models, Biological
  • Multiple Sclerosis / blood
  • Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • Multiple Sclerosis / metabolism
  • Organometallic Compounds / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pentetic Acid / pharmacokinetics*
  • Permeability
  • Time Factors


  • Contrast Media
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Pentetic Acid
  • Gadolinium
  • Gadolinium DTPA