Background: Betanodaviruses, members of the family Nodaviridae, have bipartite, positive-sense RNA genomes and are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis in many marine fish species. Recently, the viruses were shown to infect a few freshwater fish species including a model fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Although virological study using cultured medaka cells would provide a lot of insight into virus-fish interactions in molecular aspects, no such cells have yet been tested for virus susceptibility.
Results: We tested ten medaka cell lines for susceptibilities to redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). Although the viral coat protein was detected in all the cell lines inoculated, the levels of cytopathic effect development and viral propagation were quite different among the cell lines. Those levels were especially high in OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells, but were extremely low in OLME-104 cells. Some cell lines entered into antiviral state after RGNNV infections probably because of inducing an antiviral system. This is the first report to examine the susceptibilities of cultured medaka cells against a virus.
Conclusion: OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells are candidates of new standard cells for betanodavirus study because of their high susceptibilities to the virus and their several advantages as model fish cells.