Detection of specific antibodies may represent an additional tool in diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Herein, levels of serum IgG antibodies against early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6), culture filtrate antigen-10 (CFP-10) and 16 kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens were measured in 33 active pulmonary TB patients (0M-TB), in 47 patients after 1-3 months of treatment (3M-TB) and in 22 patients who had completed 6 months of chemotherapy (6M-TB). The control group consisted of 38 BCG-vaccinated healthy controls (HC). In addition, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production in PBMC cultures from 20 patients were measured following stimulation with the M. tuberculosis-specific fusion protein ESAT-6/CFP-10. Elevated levels of IgG against ESAT-6, CFP-10 and 16 kDa antigens were detected in 0M-TB and 3M-TB patients in comparison to the HC and 6M-TB groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated sensitivity of 85, 94 and 61% and specificity of 89, 87 and 89% for serum IgG against ESAT-6, CFP-10 and 16 kDa, respectively. A predominant IgG1 response to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 was observed in 0M-TB patients, together with ESAT-6/CFP-10-specific IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-6 that were produced at lower levels in the 6M-TB group. These data indicate that a T(h)1 phenotype against early phase Mtb antigens appears to be dominant in the peripheral blood of patients with active pulmonary TB that is reduced after chemotherapy. Taken together, ESAT-6/CFP-10 cytokine tests together with detecting IgG antibodies specific to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 may be the useful TB disease biomarkers in monitoring treatment success.