The laparoscopic Roux Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and the laparoscopic gastric sleeve resection are frequently used methods for the treatment of morbid obesity. Quality of life, weight loss and improvement of the co-morbidities were examined. Match pair analysis of the prospectively collected database of the 47 gastric bypass and 47 gastric sleeve resection patients operated on in our hospital was performed. The quality of life parameters were measured with two standard questionnaires (SF 36 and Moorehead-Ardelt II). The mean preoperative and postoperative BMI was in gastric bypass group 46.1 and 28.1 kg/m(2) (mean follow-up: 15.7 months) and in gastric sleeve group 50.3 and 33.5 kg/m(2) (mean follow-up: 38.3 months). The SF 36 questionnaire yielded a mean total score of 671 for the bypass and 611 for the sleeve resection patients (p = 0.06). The Moorehead-Ardelt II test signed a total score of 2.09 for gastric bypass versus 1.70 for gastric sleeve patients (p = 0.13). Ninety percent of the diabetes was resolved in the bypass and 55% in the sleeve resection group. Seventy-three percent of the hypertension patients needed no more antihypertensive treatment after gastric bypass and 30% after sleeve resection. Ninety-two percent of the gastro-oesophageal reflux were resolved in the bypass group and 25% in the sleeve (with 33% progression) group. Ninety-four percent of the patients were satisfied with the result after gastric bypass and 90% after sleeve resection. The patients have scored a high level of satisfaction in both study groups. The gastric bypass is associated with a trend toward a better quality of life without reaching statistical significance, pronounced loss of weight and more remarkable positive effects on the co-morbidities comparing with the gastric sleeve resection.