Monochorionic twin pregnancy: screening, pathogenesis of complications and management in the era of microinvasive fetal surgery

J Perinat Med. 2010 Sep;38(5):451-9. doi: 10.1515/jpm.2010.069.


Objective: The management of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies varies in different medical centers. This paper compares screening methods to predict the complications of the MC twin pregnancy and different treatment methods.

Methods: We performed a literature search without language restriction in Cochrane library and PubMed (1970-2009). Case series and cohort screening studies, pathogenesis and management of complications of MC pregnancy were included.

Results: Elevated risk for intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) can be detected sonographically. Monitoring of MC pregnancies at increased risk and regular training sessions for the operating team combined with reduced fetoscopic amniotic membrane damage increase fetal survival rate from laser coagulation to nearly 100% for at least one fetus and to 90% for both.

Conclusion: Monitoring of MC pregnancies at increased risk and laser treatment of TTTS in medical centers with sufficient experience might improve neonatal outcome.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Twin Study

MeSH terms

  • Amnion / diagnostic imaging
  • Chorion / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / etiology
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / therapy
  • Fetal Therapies / instrumentation
  • Fetal Therapies / methods*
  • Fetofetal Transfusion / diagnosis
  • Fetofetal Transfusion / etiology
  • Fetofetal Transfusion / therapy
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Laser Coagulation / instrumentation
  • Laser Coagulation / methods
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis*
  • Pregnancy Complications / etiology
  • Pregnancy Complications / therapy*
  • Pregnancy, Multiple*
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Twins, Monozygotic*
  • Ultrasonography