Associations of proinflammatory cytokine levels with lipid profiles, growth, and body composition in HIV-infected children initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Dec;29(12):1118-22. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181ed9f4c.


Objectives: To measure proinflammatory cytokines (PIC) in HIV-infected children beginning or changing antiretroviral therapy (ART), evaluating associations with virologic, immunologic, serum lipid, growth, and body composition measures, markers of growth hormone action and glucose metabolism.

Methods: Forty-nine prepubertal HIV-infected children had measurements of viral load (VL), CD4 lymphocyte count and percentage, serum lipids, apolipoprotein AI/B, IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-6 at baseline and 48 weeks of ART.

Results: Baseline levels were detectable (>0.1 pg/mL) for IL-1 β in 28 of 48, and for TNF-α and Il-6 in all 49 children. TNF-α decreased with ART (P < 0.001) and IL-6 demonstrated a similar trend (P = 0.065). Children with 48-week VL <400 copies/mL had greater declines in TNF-α (mean 45%) than subjects with higher VL (5%; P = 0.009). Each 10% improvement in CD4% was associated with 26% lower TNF-α (P = 0.002) and 31% lower IL-6 (P = 0.016). Greater reductions in TNF-α were associated with lower total/HDL cholesterol ratio (P = 0.003) at week 48.

Conclusions: In HIV-infected children initiating or changing ART, PIC were detectable at baseline and decreased over 48 weeks. Better immunologic responses were associated with greater reductions in TNF-α and IL-6. Reductions in TNF-α were associated with improved total/HDL cholesterol ratio.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anthropometry
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  • Body Composition*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • CD4-CD8 Ratio
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Electric Impedance
  • Female
  • HIV / isolation & purification
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Infections / pathology*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Male
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Lipids