Craniomandibular function was studied in 70 subjects with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). The subjects represented the total group of children and adolescents with the diagnosis JCA in a Swedish county. At examination, the median age of the subjects was 11.9 years and the median duration of the disease was 2.6 years. The most important finding of the study was the high prevalence (41%) of radiographic signs of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology. Few subjects showed the typical craniofacial abnormalities associated with JCA, like mandibular micrognathia, facial asymmetries and open bite. Subjective symptoms of dysfunction were almost absent in subjects younger than seven years but were reported by 56% of the older subjects. TMJ sounds and pain on jaw movements were the most frequent symptoms reported. At the clinical examination, TMJ crepitations and restricted horizontal jaw movements were noted in 26% and 32% respectively. The high prevalence of TMJ involvement found in this study underlines the importance that dentists become part of the medical team responsible for the treatment of children and adolescents with JCA.