BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have a 54-85% and 45% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, respectively, and a 18-60% and 11-27% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer, respectively. Oral contraceptives (OCs) significantly reduce the risk of ovarian cancer also in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. The association between OC use and breast cancer risk in these women is controversial. Some studies showed a modestly increased risk especially among BRCA1 mutation carriers. The risk appears to be greater for women who took OCs for at least 5 years and who took OCs before the age of 30 years. Other studies reported that duration of use before first full-term pregnancy has a positive association with breast cancer risk. Salpingo-oophorectomy reduces the risk of coelomic epithelial cancer of 80-95% and the risk of breast cancer of approximately 50%. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers should be encouraged to undergo prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at the age of 35-40 years or when childbearing is complete. Short-term use of hormone replacement therapy may relieve menopausal symptoms and does not appear to affect the breast cancer risk reduction obtained with salpingo-oophorectomy.