Gastric adenocarcinoma develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation of the stomach lining that is caused by persistent infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Gastric carcinogenesis progresses through a sequence of preneoplastic lesions that manifest histologically as atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. We show here in several preclinical models of Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis, epithelial hyperplasia, and metaplasia that the inhibition of ADP ribosylation by the small-molecule inhibitor PJ34 not only prevents the formation of gastric cancer precursor lesions, but also efficiently reverses preexisting lesions. PJ34 exerts its chemopreventive and therapeutic effects by impairing Helicobacter-specific T-cell priming and T(H)1 polarization in the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes. The subsequent infiltration of pathogenic T cells into the gastric mucosa and the ensuing gastric T cell-driven immunopathology are prevented efficiently by PJ34. Our data indicate that PJ34 directly suppresses T-cell effector functions by blocking the IFN-gamma production of mesenteric lymph node T cells ex vivo. Upon exposure to PJ34, purified T cells failed to synthesize ADP-ribose polymers and to activate the transcription of genes encoding IFN-gamma, interleukin 2, and the interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain in response to stimuli such as CD3/CD28 cross-linking or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin. The immunosuppressive and chemoprotective effects of PJ34 therefore result from impaired T-cell activation and T(H)1 polarization, and lead to the protection from preneoplastic gastric immunopathology. In conclusion, ADP-ribosylating enzymes constitute novel targets for the treatment of Helicobacter-associated gastric lesions predisposing infected individuals to gastric cancer and may also hold promise for the treatment of other T cell-driven chronic inflammatory conditions and autoimmune pathologies.