Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) is recognized as an important experimental therapy for the treatment of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia. Many sources of leukemia-associated antigens and different methods for antigen loading of DCs have been used in an attempt to optimize anti-tumor responses. For instance, monocyte-derived DCs have been loaded with apoptotic whole-cell suspensions, necrotic cell lysates, tumor-associated peptides, eluted peptides and cellular DNA or RNA. Furthermore, monocyte-derived DCs can be chemically or electrically fused with leukemic blasts, and DCs have been cultured out of leukemic blasts. However, it remains a challenge in cancer immunotherapy to identify which of these methods is the most optimal for antigen loading and activation of DCs. This review discusses recent advances in DC research and the application of this knowledge towards new strategies for antigen loading of DCs in the treatment of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia.