A novel modality toward the treatment of HER-2/neu-positive malignancies, mostly including breast and, more recently prostate carcinomas, has been the use of vaccines targeting HER-2/neu extracellular and intracellular domains. HER-2/neu-specific vaccines have been demonstrated to generate durable T-cell anti-HER-2/neu immunity when tested in Phase I and II clinical trials with no significant toxicity or autoimmunity directed against normal tissues. Targeting of HER-2/neu in active immunotherapy may involve peptide and DNA vaccines. Moreover, active anti-HER-2/neu immunization could facilitate the ex vivo expansion of HER-2/neu-specific T cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of established metastatic disease. In addition, early data from trials examining the potential use of HER-2/neu-based vaccines in the adjuvant setting to prevent the relapse of breast cancer in high-risk patients have shown promising results. Future approaches include multiepitope preventive vaccines and combinatorial treatments for generating the most efficient protective anti-tumor immunity.