Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). 2008;1:883-909. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anchem.1.031207.112754.


Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is a label-free imaging technique that is capable of real-time, nonperturbative examination of living cells and organisms based on molecular vibrational spectroscopy. Recent advances in detection schemes, understanding of contrast mechanisms, and developments of laser sources have enabled superb sensitivity and high time resolution. Emerging applications, such as metabolite and drug imaging and tumor identification, raise many exciting new possibilities for biology and medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biochemistry / methods
  • Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • Humans
  • Lasers
  • Microscopy / methods*
  • Models, Statistical
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spectrophotometry / methods
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods*