It has been hypothesized that human renal apical membrane transporters play a key role in human renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoate (PFO), which contributes to the long half-life of PFO in humans. In the present study, PFO uptake kinetics of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A2, organic anion transporter (OAT) 4, and urate transporter 1 (URAT1) in stably transfected cell lines was investigated. OAT4 and URAT1, but not OATP1A2, were shown to mediate saturable PFO cellular uptake. OAT4-mediated PFO uptake was stimulated by a low extracellular pH, which was evidenced as a lower Michaelis constant (K(m)) at pH 6 (172.3 ± 45.9μM) than that at pH 7.4 (310.3 ± 30.2μM). URAT1-mediated PFO uptake was greatly enhanced by an outward Cl(-) gradient, and its K(m) value was determined to be 64.1 ± 30.5μM in the absence of extracellular Cl(-). The inhibition of OATP1A2- or OAT4-mediated estrone-3-sulfate uptake or URAT1-mediated urate uptake has been compared for linear perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs) with carbon chain lengths from 4 to 12. A clear chain length-dependent inhibition was observed, suggesting that PFCs in general are substrates of OAT4 and URAT1 but with different levels of affinities to the transporters depending on their chain length. Our results suggest that OAT4 and URAT1 are key transporters in renal reabsorption of PFCs in humans and, as a result, may contribute significantly to the long half-life of PFO in humans.