68Ga-1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-1,4-7-triacetic acid-Glu-[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(Arg-Gly-Asp- D-Phe-Lys)]2

In: Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2004.
[updated ].


Integrins are a family of heterodimeric glycoproteins on cell surfaces that mediate diverse biological events involving cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions (1). Integrins consist of an α and a β subunit and are important for cell adhesion and signal transduction. The αvβ3 integrin is the most prominent receptor affecting tumor growth, tumor invasiveness, metastasis, tumor-induced angiogenesis, inflammation, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis (2-7). Expression of the αvβ3 integrin is strong on tumor cells and activated endothelial cells, whereas expression is weak on resting endothelial cells and most normal tissues. The αvβ3 antagonists are being studied as antitumor and antiangiogenic agents, and the agonists are being studied as angiogenic agents for coronary angiogenesis (6, 8, 9). The peptide sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) has been identified as a recognition motif used by extracellular matrix proteins (vitronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, and collagen) to bind to a variety of integrins, including αvβ3. Various radiolabeled antagonists have been introduced for imaging of tumors and tumor angiogenesis (10).

Most of the cyclic RGD peptides are composed of five amino acids. Various cyclic RGD peptides exhibit selective inhibition of binding to αvβ3 (50% inhibition concentration (IC50), 7–40 nM) but not to αvβ5 (IC50, 600–4,000 nM) or αIIbβ3 (IC50, 700–5,000 nM) integrins (11). Various radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides and peptidominetics have been found to have high accumulation in tumors in mice (12, 13). Out of these developments [18F]Galacto-c(RGDfK) has been evaluated in a number of clinical studies for imaging of αvβ3 in cancer patients (14-19). Li et al. (20) used 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-7-triacetic acid (NOTA) as a bifunctional chelator for labeling Glu-[Gly-Gly-Gly-cyclo(RGDfK)]2 (G3-RGD2) to form (68Ga-NOTA-G3-RGD2) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of αvβ3 receptors in nude mice bearing human glioblastoma U87MG tumors.

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