Hormonal and metabolic effects of morning or evening dosing of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;70(1):34-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03652.x.


What is already known about this subject: Vildagliptin is an orally active, potent inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and was developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In clinical trials, once or twice daily dosing with vildagliptin (up to 100 mg day(-1)) has been shown to reduce endogenous glucose production and fasting plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. The comparative efficacy of vildagliptin under a morning vs. evening dosing regimen has not previously been determined.

What this study adds: Once daily dosing with vildagliptin 100 mg for 28 days improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes independent of whether vildagliptin was administered in the morning or evening. Morning or evening dosing with vildagliptin had similar effects on 24 h glycaemic control and plasma concentrations of the hormones insulin, glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1.

Aim: This randomized, double-blind, crossover study compared post-prandial hormonal and metabolic effects of vildagliptin, (an oral, potent, selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-4]) administered morning or evening in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Forty-eight patients were randomized to once daily vildagliptin 100 mg administered before breakfast or before dinner for 28 days then crossed over to the other dosing regimen. Blood was sampled frequently after each dose at baseline (day -1) and on days 28 and 56 to assess pharmacodynamic parameters.

Results: Vildagliptin inhibited DPP-4 activity (>80% for 15.5 h post-dose), and increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 compared with placebo. Both regimens reduced total glucose exposure compared with placebo (area under the 0-24 h effect-time curve [AUE(0,24 h)]: morning -467 mg dl(-1) h, P= 0.014; evening -574 mg dl(-1) h, P= 0.003) with no difference between regimens (P= 0.430). Reductions in daytime glucose exposure (AUE(0,10.5 h)) were similar between regimens. Reduction in night-time exposure (AUE(10.5,24 h) was greater with evening than morning dosing (-336 vs.-218 mg dl(-1) h, P= 0.192). Only evening dosing significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (-13 mg dl(-1), P= 0.032) compared with placebo. Insulin exposure was greater with evening dosing (evening 407 microU ml(-1) h; morning 354 microU ml(-1) h, P= 0.050).

Conclusions: Both morning and evening dosing of once daily vildagliptin 100 mg significantly reduced post-prandial glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes; only evening dosing significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose. Although evening dosing with vildagliptin 100 mg tended to decrease night-time glucose exposure more than morning dosing, both regimens were equally effective in reducing 24 h mean glucose exposure (AUE(0,24 h)) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adamantane / administration & dosage
  • Adamantane / analogs & derivatives*
  • Adamantane / pharmacology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitriles / administration & dosage
  • Nitriles / pharmacology*
  • Pyrrolidines / administration & dosage
  • Pyrrolidines / pharmacology*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vildagliptin
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
  • Insulin
  • Nitriles
  • Pyrrolidines
  • Vildagliptin
  • Adamantane