Purpose: Status epilepticus (SE) leads to upregulation of pro-inflammatory proteins including cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) which could be implicated in the epileptogenic process and epileptic seizures. Recent studies show that cox-2 can regulate expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) during epileptogenesis and epilepsy. P-gp could cause pharmacoresistance by reducing brain entry of anti-epileptic drugs such as phenytoin (PHT). Here we have investigated the effects of cox-2 inhibition on epileptogenesis, spontaneous seizures and PHT treatment in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).
Methods: A 3-day treatment with the cox-2 inhibitor SC-58236 (SC) was started 1 day before electrically induced SE. Chronic epileptic rats were treated with SC for 14 days, which was followed by a 7-day period of SC/PHT combination treatment. Seizure activity was monitored continuously using electroencephalography.
Results: SC treatment did not affect SE duration, but led to an increased number of rats that died during the first 2 weeks after SE. Cox-2 inhibition during the chronic period led to an increased number of seizures in the 2nd week of treatment in 50% of the rats. SC/PHT treatment reduced seizures significantly for only 2 days.
Conclusions: Both SC treatment that started before SE and the 14-day treatment in chronic epileptic rats led to adverse effects in the TLE rat model. Despite a temporal reduction in seizure frequency with SC/PHT treatment, SC does not seem to be a suitable approach for anti-epileptogenic or anti-epileptic therapy.
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