The GC-MS analysis revealed that the leaf essential oils of Myrciaria tenella (DC.) Berg and Calycorectes sellowianus O. Berg (Myrtaceae) were composed of 34 and 37 compounds, respectively. The main constituents of M. tenella oil were beta-caryophyllene (25.1%), and spathulenol (9.7%), while for C. sellowianus were guaiol (13.1%) and beta-caryophyllene (8.6%). The anti-inflammatory effect of both essential oils was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Both oils reduced significantly (p < 0.005) the treated neutrophils chemotaxis with 93% and 91% inhibition for M. tenella and C. sellowianus, respectively. However, in the systemic treatment with the essential oils (50 mg/kg p.o.) only the M. tenella oil was able to significantly reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for indomethacin (10 mg/kg), the positive control.