Antibacterial Properties of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Sweet Basil Ocimum Basilicum Occurring in Bangladesh

Pharm Biol. 2010 May;48(5):504-11. doi: 10.3109/13880200903190977.

Abstract

The antibacterial potential of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) was evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves and stems were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-seven compounds representing 94.9 and 96.1% of the total leaf and stem oils, respectively, were identified, of which methyl chavicol (36.7 and 29.9%), gitoxigenin (9.3 and 10.2%), trimethoquinol (10.3 and 8.4%), beta-guaiene (3.7 and 4.1%), aciphyllene (3.4 and 3.0%), alizarin (3.2 and 4.4%), naphthaline (2.2 and 3.8%), (-)-caryophyllene (2.0 and 1.9%), and mequinol (1.6 and 1.8%) were the major compounds. The essential oils (10 microL/disc of 1:5, v/v dilution with methanol) and methanol extracts (300 microg/disc) of O. basilicum displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Bacillius cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, and Salmonella typhi with their respective zones of inhibition of 11.2-21.1 mm and MIC values of 62.5-500 microg/mL. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from O. basilicum may have potential use in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries as antimicrobial agents.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacillus / drug effects
  • Bacillus / physiology
  • Bangladesh
  • Methanol / isolation & purification
  • Methanol / pharmacology*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests / methods
  • Ocimum basilicum*
  • Oils, Volatile / isolation & purification
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Leaves
  • Plant Stems
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus aureus / physiology

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Extracts
  • Methanol