Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods

Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):182-6. doi: 10.3109/13880200903062671.


The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods
  • Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry
  • Free Radical Scavengers / isolation & purification
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology*
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Garcinia mangostana / chemistry*
  • Medicine, Traditional
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phytotherapy
  • Picrates / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Propionibacterium acnes / drug effects*
  • Solvents
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis / drug effects*
  • Tannins / analysis
  • Xanthones / analysis


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Phenols
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents
  • Tannins
  • Xanthones
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • mangostin