In 1986, 50 patients with stages II and III carcinoma of the cervix were entered into this prospective randomized study. Twenty-five cases (Group I) were treated only by radical radiation whereas remaining 25 cases (Group II) received local hyperthermia in addition to radical radiation. Hyperthermia was delivered by intracavitary brachyhyperthermia approach using an endotract applicator. Both the groups were followed up for a minimum period of 18 months. Group II patients achieved better local control (14 out of 20 evaluable cases) than the Group I patients (11 out of 22 evaluable cases). A disturbing observation was the increased incidence of distant metastasis in Group II (4 out of 23 cases) as compared to Group I (1 out of 23 cases), though most of them remained disease free locally. The increasing use of hyperthermia in the management of various cancers needs to be reviewed in this context.