Comparative immunological effect of anticoagulant and antioxidant therapy in the prevention of abortion in mice

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Feb;65(2):104-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2010.00896.x.


Problem: Considering the potential adverse effects of anticoagulation in abortion treatment, we investigate whether antioxidants might exert the same immunoprotection. Although the fertility properties of Vitamin E have been associated with its antioxidant capacity, its effect on cytokine balance during pregnancy is still unknown.

Method of study: Pregnant females from CBA/J × DBA/2 abortion model were orally supplemented with Vitamin E or inoculated intraperitoneally with enoxaparin. Foeto-placental units were scored at 14.5 days of pregnancy, and abortion rate was calculated. Cytokine placental levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Vitamin E (15 mg/day) has been able to decrease abortion rate and to increase IL-6 placental levels, while both treatments increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) placental levels.

Conclusion: Vitamin E and enoxaparin are able not only to prevent foetal wastage but also to balance IL-6 and VEGF placental levels, presenting a new potential therapeutic alternative for patients with recurrent abortion not associated with thrombophilias.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Habitual / immunology*
  • Abortion, Habitual / prevention & control*
  • Abortion, Induced / statistics & numerical data
  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use*
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Enoxaparin / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred CBA
  • Placenta / immunology
  • Placenta / metabolism
  • Pregnancy
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Up-Regulation
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism*
  • Vitamin E / therapeutic use


  • Anticoagulants
  • Antioxidants
  • Enoxaparin
  • Interleukin-6
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vitamin E