From nose to brain: development of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 neurones

J Neuroendocrinol. 2010 Jul;22(7):743-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2010.02034.x.


Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) is essential for mammalian reproduction, controlling release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary. GnRH-1 neurones migrate from the nasal placode into the forebrain during development. Although first located within the nasal placode, the embryonic origin/lineage of GnRH-1 neurones is still unclear. The migration of GnRH-1 cells is the best characterised example of neurophilic/axophilic migration, with the cells using a subset of olfactory-derived vomeronasal axons as their pathway and numerous molecules to guide their movement into the forebrain. Exciting work in this area is beginning to identify intersecting pathways that orchestrate the movement of these critical neuroendocrine cells into the central nervous system, both spatially and temporally, through a diverse and changing terrain. Once within the forebrain, little is known about how the axons target the median eminence and ultimately secrete GnRH-1 in a pulsatile fashion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / cytology*
  • Brain / embryology*
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Cell Movement / physiology
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Kallmann Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism
  • Olfactory Pathways / anatomy & histology
  • Olfactory Pathways / embryology
  • Olfactory Pathways / metabolism
  • Olfactory Receptor Neurons / cytology
  • Olfactory Receptor Neurons / physiology*
  • Protein Precursors / metabolism*
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism
  • Semaphorins / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived / metabolism


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Nsmf protein, rat
  • Protein Precursors
  • Semaphorins
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived
  • progonadoliberin I
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases