Objective: Adults with obesity or obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease possibly due to increased arterial stiffness. We sought to determine if arterial stiffness is increased in youth with obesity or T2DM as compared with lean controls.
Methods: Youth age 10-24 years (N = 670, 62% non-Caucasian, 35% male) were examined. They were stratified by the 85th% of BMI as lean (L=241), obese (O=234) or obese with T2DM (T2DM=195). Questionnaire, anthropometric, BP, laboratory (fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipids, CRP), physical activity, and DXA were collected. Brachial artery distensibility (BrachD), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured. Group differences were evaluated by ANOVA. General linear multivariate models were constructed to elucidate independent determinates of arterial stiffness.
Results: CV risk profile deteriorated from L to O to T2DM group. There was a progressive increase in AIx and PWV-trunk with progressive decline in BrachD from L to O to T2DM individuals (all P < 0.05). Group (status as L, O or T2DM) was an independent predictor of arterial stiffness even after adjusting for CV risk factors.
Conclusion: Arterial stiffness is increased in young individuals with obesity and obesity-related T2DM even after correction for risk factors.