Amphetamine-group substances are used worldwide and are more prevalent than either cocaine or opioids. We reviewed published reports about amphetamine-group substances and did a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions for their use. Most research was done in developed countries. Many, but not all, studies show an association between amphetamine-group substance use and risk of HIV infection. Much use of amphetamine-group substances is non-injection and is associated with increased HIV risk, particularly in men who have sex with men. The structural, social, interpersonal, and personal factors that link to amphetamine-group substance use and HIV risk are poorly understood. 13 studies, with a cumulative sample size of 1997 individuals, qualified for the meta-analysis. Overall, high-intensity behavioural interventions were moderately effective in reducing use of amphetamine-group substances (effect size 0.28, 95% CI 0.13-0.44). We did not find conclusive evidence that behavioural interventions as a group are more effective than are passive or minium treatment for reduction of amphetamine-group substance use or sexual risk behaviours. The search for effective, scalable, and sustainable interventions for amphetamine-group substance use, including pharmacotherapies, should be supported and encouraged.
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