[Non invasive ventilation in a pediatric intensive care unit]

Acta Med Port. 2010 May-Jun;23(3):399-404. Epub 2010 Jun 14.
[Article in Portuguese]


Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is being increasingly used in children with acute respiratory failure, preventing complications associated with conventional mecánical ventilation.

Aims: To determinate the efficacy of NIV in children with acute respiratory failure or chronic respiratory failure.

Methods: Prospective study of all patients who underwent NIV (November 2005 to April 2008). Demographic data and the following parameters were analysed: Heart and respiratory rate, SaO2, blood gases evaluated before and at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours after NIV.

Results: One hundred and thirteen were included (116 NIV trials). Mean age 9,4 +/- 26,2 months (median: 1,5 months). CPAP used in 63 and BiPAP in 53 trials.

Diagnosis: bronchiolitis in 61 (52,6%), pneumonia in 36 (31,0%) patients. Indications for NIV: acute hypercapnic and/or hypoxemic respiratory failure in 109 (94%), apnoea (13), chronic pulmonary disease agudization (three), partial obstruction of upper airway (four). There was a significant improvement in respiratory and heart rates, pH, pCO2 at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after NIV onset (p < 0,05) (table). Mean duration of NIV was 47,7 +/- 35,6 hours. Sedation with chloral hydrate was used in 58 (50%). Twenty eight patients (24,1%), required conventional mechanical ventilation (main reason: apnea+bradicárdia: 8). There were no major complications related with NIV.

Conclusions: NIV can be effective in children and infants with acute respiratory failure, preventing some patients from deteriorating and/or from being ventilated.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Critical Care / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Male
  • Positive-Pressure Respiration*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / therapy*