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, 45 (2), 150-5

Predictors of Persistent ADHD: An 11-year Follow-Up Study

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Predictors of Persistent ADHD: An 11-year Follow-Up Study

Joseph Biederman et al. J Psychiatr Res.

Abstract

Objective: Despite the existence of several follow-up studies of children with ADHD followed up into adulthood, there is limited information on whether patterns of persistence and remission in ADHD can be predicted over the long term. The main aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of persistence of ADHD in a large sample of boys with and without ADHD followed prospectively for 11 years into young adulthood.

Method: Subjects were Caucasian, non-Hispanic boys with (N = 110) and without (N = 105) ADHD who were 6-17 years old at the baseline assessment (mean age 11 years) and 15 to 31 years old at the follow-up assessment (mean age 22 years). Subjects were comprehensively and blindly assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and assessments of cognitive, social, school, and family functioning.

Results: At the 11-year follow-up, 78% of children with ADHD continued to have a full (35%) or a partial persistence (subsyndromal (22%), impaired functioning (15%), or remitted but treated (6%)). Predictors of persistence were severe impairment of ADHD, psychiatric comorbidity, and exposure to maternal psychopathology at baseline.

Conclusions: These findings prospectively confirm that persistence of ADHD over the long term is predictable from psychosocial adversity and psychiatric comorbidity ascertained 11 years earlier.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of interest: Dr. Joseph Biederman is currently receiving research support from the following sources: Alza, AstraZeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Co., Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc., McNeil, Merck, Organon, Otsuka, Shire, NIMH, and NICHD. In 2009, Dr. Joseph Biederman received a speaker’s fee from the following sources: Fundacion Areces, Medice Pharmaceuticals, and the Spanish Child Psychiatry Association. In previous years, Dr. Joseph Biederman received research support, consultation fees, or speaker’s fees for/from the following additional sources: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Celltech, Cephalon, Eli Lilly and Co., Esai, Forest, Glaxo, Gliatech, Janssen, McNeil, NARSAD, NIDA, New River, Novartis, Noven, Neurosearch, Pfizer, Pharmacia, The Prechter Foundation, Shire, The Stanley Foundation, UCB Pharma, Inc. and Wyeth.

Mr. Carter Petty reports no potential conflicts of interest.

Ms. Allison Clarke reports no potential conflicts of interest.

Ms. Alexandra Lomedico reports no potential conflicts of interest.

In the past year, Dr. Stephen Faraone has received consulting fees and has been on Advisory Boards for Eli Lilly, Ortho-McNeil and Shire Development and has received research support from Eli Lilly, Pfizer, Shire and the National Institutes of Health. In previous years, Dr. Faraone has received consulting fees or has been on Advisory Boards or has been a speaker for the following sources: Shire, McNeil, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer and Eli Lilly. In previous years he has received research support from Eli Lilly, Shire, Pfizer and the National Institutes of Health.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Comorbid disorders at baseline. A=vs. Controls, B=vs. Remittent ADHD; *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01; ***≤0.001
Figure 2
Figure 2
CBCL at baseline. A=vs. Controls, B=vs. Remittent ADHD; *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01; ***≤0.001
Figure 3
Figure 3
School functioning and psychosocial adversity at baseline. A=vs. Controls, B=vs. Remittent ADHD; *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01; ***≤0.001

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