Aim of the study: Determine high-resolution tomography (HRCT) scan characteristics in children with SFTPC mutation and correlate them to histological findings.
Patients and methods: This retrospective multicenter study included 15 children (7 females and 8 males) with SFTPC mutations. HRCT scans have been performed in all the children and lung biopsies in 8 children.
Results: From all signs assessed on initial HRCT scans, ground-glass opacities (n =14, 93%) and lung cysts (n = 6, 40%) were predominant. Interlobular septal thickening (n = 1, 7%), air space consolidation (n = 1, 7%), paraseptal emphysema (n = 2, 13%), and pulmonary nodules (n = 1, 7%) were also found. Histological analysis revealed accumulation of macrophages in the alveolar lumen, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and alveolar septal thickening. Dilatation of the respiratory bronchiole and alveolar duct associated with muscular hyperplasia were also described. Interestingly, lung cysts on HRCT scans were associated with dilatation of terminal bronchioli and alveolar duct in lung biopsies.
Conclusion: In children with SFTPC mutations, HRCT scan finding was highly correlated to the histological findings and, as such, represent a useful tool to identify patients that may require SFTPC gene sequencing.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00493363.
© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.