An increased incidence of malignancy is an established complication of organ transplantation and the associated immunosuppression. In this study on cancer incidence in solid organ transplant recipients in Britain, we describe the incidence of de novo cancers in the allograft recipient, and compare these incidences following the transplantation of different organs. Data in the UK Transplant Registry held by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) were linked with data made available by the cancer registries in England, Scotland and Wales. Incidence rates in the transplanted population were then compared with the general population, using standardized incidence ratios matched for age, gender and time period. The 10-year incidence of de novo cancer in transplant recipients is twice that of the general population, with the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer being 13 times greater. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, cancer of the lip, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and anal cancer have the largest standardized incidence ratios, but the incidence of different types of malignancy differs according to the organ transplanted. Patterns in standardized incidence ratios over time since transplantation are different for different types of transplant recipient, as well as for different malignancies. These results have implications for a national screening program.