MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are approximately 21 nucleotides in length and control many developmental and cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Research during the past decade has identified major factors participating in miRNA biogenesis and has established basic principles of miRNA function. More recently, it has become apparent that miRNA regulators themselves are subject to sophisticated control. Many reports over the past few years have reported the regulation of miRNA metabolism and function by a range of mechanisms involving numerous protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. Such regulation has an important role in the context-specific functions of miRNAs.