Cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or unfolded protein response (UPR) is a key defense mechanism associated with many human diseases. Despite its basic and clinical importance, the extent of ER stress inflicted by physiological and pathophysiological conditions remains difficult to quantitate, posing a huge obstacle that has hindered our further understanding of physiological UPR and its future therapeutic potential. Here we have optimized a Phos-tag-based system to detect the activation status of two proximal UPR sensors at the ER membrane. This method allowed for a quantitative assessment of the level of stress in the ER. Our data revealed quantitatively the extent of tissue-specific basal ER stress as well as ER stress caused by the accumulation of misfolded proteins and the fasting-refeeding cycle. Our study may pave the foundation for future studies on physiological UPR, aid in the diagnosis of ER-associated diseases and improve and facilitate therapeutic strategies targeting UPR in vivo.