Background: Persistent gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms can occur despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy.
Aim: To assess the prevalence and potential determinants of persistent GERD symptoms in primary care and community-based studies.
Methods: Studies were identified by systematic PubMed and Embase searches; pooled prevalence data are shown as sample-size weighted means and 95% confidence intervals.
Results: Nineteen studies in individuals with GERD taking a PPI were included. In interventional, nonrandomized primary care trials, the prevalence of persistent troublesome heartburn and regurgitation was 17% (6-28%) and 28% (26-30%) respectively; in randomized trials, it was 32% (25-39%) and 28% (26-30%), respectively. In observational primary care and community-based studies, 45% (30-60%) of participants reported persistent GERD symptoms. Overall, persistent GERD symptoms despite PPI treatment were more likely in studies with a higher proportion of female participants [>60% vs. <50%, risk ratio (RR): 3.66; P < 0.001], but less likely in studies from Europe than in those from the USA (RR: 0.71; P < 0.001), and were associated with decreased psychological and physical well-being.
Conclusions: Persistent GERD symptoms despite PPI treatment are common in the primary care and community setting. Alternative approaches to management are required.
2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.