Direct transcriptional control of the Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 by the ethylene-dependent transcription factors EIN3 and EIL1

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 10;107(32):14502-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1003347107. Epub 2010 Jul 27.


In plant innate immunity, the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase FLS2 recognizes the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flagellin. The molecular mechanisms underlying PAMP perception are not fully understood. Here, we reveal that the gaseous phytohormone ethylene is an integral part of PAMP-triggered immunity. Plants mutated in the key ethylene-signaling protein EIN2 are impaired in all FLS2-mediated responses, correlating with reduced FLS2 transcription and protein accumulation. The EIN3 and EIN3-like transcription factors, which depend on EIN2 activity for their accumulation, directly control FLS2 expression. Our results reveal a direct role for ethylene in regulation of an innate immune receptor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / immunology
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Ethylenes / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Protein Kinases / biosynthesis
  • Protein Kinases / genetics*
  • Receptors, Immunologic / biosynthesis
  • Receptors, Immunologic / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • EIL1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • EIN3 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Ethylenes
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Transcription Factors
  • ethylene
  • Protein Kinases
  • FLS2 protein, Arabidopsis