Stratification for confounding--part 2: direct and indirect standardization

Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;116(4):c322-5. doi: 10.1159/000319591. Epub 2010 Jul 28.


Standardization is a method used to compare observed and expected rates of a given disease/outcome by removing the influence of factors that may confound the comparison. There are two major standardization methods: one is used when the 'standard' is the structure of a population (direct method) and the other when the 'standard' is a set of specific event rates (indirect method). The direct standardization is commonly used for large populations while the indirect one is applied to populations of relatively small dimensions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Standards*