Objectives: The gold standard for endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (BE) includes targeted biopsies (TBs) from abnormalities as well as stepwise four-quadrant biopsies (4QBs) for detection of invisible high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias (HGINs) or early carcinomas (ECs). In a large mixed BE population, we investigated the rate of HGINs/ECs that are macroscopically occult to enhanced visualization with high-resolution endoscopy plus acetic acid chromoendoscopy.
Methods: From January 2007 to December 2009, 701 consecutive BE patients were enrolled in a prospective study at a tertiary referral center. Of these, 406 patients had a history of HGIN/EC (high-risk group) and 295 patients did not (low-risk group).
Results: In 701 patients, 459 TBs and 5,485 4QBs were obtained. Altogether, 92 patients with 132 lesions containing HGINs/ECs were detected. For the diagnosis of HGINs/ECs, patient-related sensitivity and specificity rates of endoscopic imaging with TBs were 96.7 and 66.5%, with a positive and negative predictive value of 30.4 and 99.3%, respectively. In the high-risk group, 4QBs identified three additional patients (3.3%) with macroscopically occult HGINs/ECs. In the low-risk group, no HGINs/ECs were identified with either biopsy approach.
Conclusions: Advanced endoscopic imaging identifies the vast majority of BE patients with early neoplasias, and the additive effect of 4QB is minimal. Therefore, in low- and high-risk patients, limiting endoscopic surveillance to guided biopsies is justified in specialized high-volume centers with permanent quality control. However, we do not advocate abandoning 4QB outside this setting.