Norwalk virus does not replicate in human macrophages or dendritic cells derived from the peripheral blood of susceptible humans

Virology. 2010 Oct 10;406(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.07.001. Epub 2010 Jul 29.


Human noroviruses are difficult to study due to the lack of an efficient in vitro cell culture system or small animal model. Murine norovirus replicates in murine macrophages (MPhi) and dendritic cells (DCs), raising the possibility that human NoVs might replicate in such human cell types. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated DCs and MPhi derived from monocyte subsets and CD11c(+) DCs isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals susceptible to Norwalk virus (NV) infection. These cells were exposed to NV and replication was evaluated by immunofluorescence and by quantitative RT-PCR. A few PBMC-derived DCs expressed NV proteins. However, NV RNA did not increase in any of the cells tested. These results demonstrate that NV does not replicate in human CD11c(+) DCs, monocyte-derived DCs and MPhi, but abortive infection may occur in a few DCs. These results suggest that NV tropism is distinct from that of murine noroviruses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ABO Blood-Group System
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / metabolism
  • Base Sequence
  • CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1
  • Caliciviridae Infections / genetics
  • Caliciviridae Infections / physiopathology
  • Caliciviridae Infections / virology
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Dendritic Cells / classification
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / virology*
  • Fucosyltransferases / genetics
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Interferon Type I / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / metabolism
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / virology*
  • Mice
  • Norwalk virus / classification
  • Norwalk virus / pathogenicity
  • Norwalk virus / physiology*
  • Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism
  • Receptors, IgG / metabolism
  • Species Specificity
  • Viral Tropism
  • Virus Replication


  • ABO Blood-Group System
  • Antigens, Viral
  • CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1
  • CX3CR1 protein, human
  • DNA Primers
  • FCGR3B protein, human
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Interferon Type I
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Receptors, IgG
  • Fucosyltransferases