Embryo implantation is an intricate interaction between receptive uterus and active blastocyst. The mechanism underlying embryo implantation is still unknown. Although histamine and putrescine are important for embryo implantation and decidualization, excess amount of histamine and putrescine is harmful. Amiloride binding protein 1 (Abp1) is a membrane-associated amine oxidase and mainly metabolizes histamine and putrescine. In this study, we first showed that Abp1 is strongly expressed in the decidua on d 5-8 of pregnancy. Abp1 expression is not detected during pseudopregnancy and under delayed implantation but is detected after estrogen activation. Because Abp1 is mainly localized in the decidua and also strongly expressed during in vitro decidualization, Abp1 might play a role during mouse decidualization. The regulation of estrogen on Abp1 is mediated by transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β. Abp1 expression is also regulated by cAMP, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and ERK1/2. Abp1 may be essential for mouse embryo implantation and decidualization.