Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women

J Nutr. 2010 Sep;140(9):1669-76. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.124164. Epub 2010 Jul 28.


In premenopausal women, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of negative reproductive outcomes. Whole grain consumption has been associated with lower CRP concentrations in older women; however, less is known about this relationship in younger women. We investigated whether whole grain intake was associated with serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations in young women. BioCycle was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University of Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, which followed 259 healthy women aged 18-44 y for <or= 2 menstrual cycles. hs-CRP concentrations were measured longitudinally <or= 8 times/cycle with visits standardized to menstrual cycle phase. Whole grain intake was estimated by 24-h recalls <or= 4 times/cycle. Servings were defined as 16 g or 125 mL of a 100% whole grain food. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >or= 1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers. Women who consumed >or= 1 serving/d of whole grain had a lower probability of having moderate (P = 0.008) or elevated (P = 0.001) hs-CRP according to the AHA criteria compared with nonconsumers. Given that elevated concentrations of hs-CRP have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes and pregnancy complications, interventions targeting whole grain consumption may have the potential to improve health status among young women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet
  • Diet Surveys
  • Edible Grain / chemistry*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Food Analysis*
  • Humans
  • New York
  • Premenopause
  • Young Adult


  • C-Reactive Protein