Neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH release and expression of GnRH and GnRH receptor genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary unit in different physiological states

Reprod Biol. 2010 Jul;10(2):85-124. doi: 10.1016/s1642-431x(12)60054-0.


This review is focused on the relationship between neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH/LH secretion and the expression of GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit during different physiological states of animals and under stress. Moreover, the involvement of hypothalamic GABA-ergic, Beta-endorphinergic, CRH-ergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic and GnRH-ergic systems in the regulation of expression of the GnRH and GnRHR genes as well as secretion of GnRH/LH is analyzed. It appears that the neural mechanisms controlling GnRH gene expression in different physiological states may be distinct from those regulating GnRH/LH release. The hypothalamic GnRHR gene is probably located in different neural systems and may act in a specific way on GnRH gene expression and GnRH release.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Afferent Pathways / physiology
  • Anestrus
  • Animals
  • Brain / physiology
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Endorphins / physiology
  • Estrus
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics*
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology*
  • Hypothalamus / physiology
  • Neurons
  • Pituitary Gland, Anterior / physiology
  • Receptors, LHRH / genetics*


  • Endorphins
  • Receptors, LHRH
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone