Functional evaluation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated by a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique

Tissue Eng Part A. 2011 Jan;17(1-2):107-14. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2010.0312. Epub 2010 Sep 9.


Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is currently applied in a variety of research fields, including regenerative medicine, drug screening, and bioactuator development, all of which require the fabrication of biomimic and functional skeletal muscle tissues. In the present study, magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of three-dimensional artificial skeletal muscle tissues by an applied magnetic force. Skeletal muscle functions, such as biochemical and contractile properties, were evaluated for the artificial tissue constructs. Histological studies revealed that elongated and multinucleated myotubes were observed within the tissue. Expression of muscle-specific markers, such as myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin, were detected in the tissue constructs by western blot analysis. Further, creatine kinase activity increased during differentiation. In response to electric pulses, the artificial tissue constructs contracted to generate a physical force (the maximum twitch force, 33.2 μN [1.06 mN/mm2]). Rheobase and chronaxie of the tissue were determined as 4.45 V and 0.72 ms, respectively. These results indicate that the artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated in this study were physiologically functional and the data obtained for the evaluation of their functional properties may provide useful information for future skeletal muscle tissue engineering studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line
  • Magnetics*
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal*
  • Myogenin / metabolism
  • Myosin Heavy Chains / metabolism
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tropomyosin / metabolism


  • Myogenin
  • Tropomyosin
  • Myosin Heavy Chains