Context: Investigating potential central nervous system (CNS) activities of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae), hawthorn, fruit extracts.
Objective: Evaluating CNS effects and analgesic activities of hawthorn fruit extracts based on the traditional uses of the plant for neurosedative and pain killer actions.
Materials and methods: Effects of hawthorn pulp (HPE) and seed extracts (HSE) at the dose range of 1-1000 mg/kg were examined on anxiety level, spontaneous locomotor activity, motor coordination, and nociceptive perception of mice. Morphine was used as a reference drug.
Results: HPE (100-1000 mg/kg) and HSE (10-1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased not only the exploratory behaviors in hole-board experiments, but also the spontaneous locomotor activities in activity cage tests. The same doses of extracts were found to be ineffective in Rota-Rod tests of mice. In tail-clip, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests, quite potent and dose-dependent analgesic activities were seen at 100-1000 mg/kg doses of HPE and 10-1000 mg/kg doses of HSE. Analgesic effects observed in all analgesia tests were antagonized by naloxone.
Discussion: Significant and dose-dependent decreases in spontaneous locomotor activities and exploratory behaviors of animals suggested CNS depressant activities of both extracts. Complete naloxone antagonism in all applied analgesia tests indicated opioid-related analgesic activities of both extracts.
Conclusion: These findings seem to support the traditional use of this plant to treat stress, nervousness, sleep disorders, and pain control.