Physiologic insulin delivery with insulin feedback: a control systems perspective

Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2011 May;102(2):130-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2010.06.007. Epub 2010 Aug 2.


Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus must effectively manage glycemia to avoid acute and chronic complications related to aberrations of glucose levels. Because optimal diabetes management can be difficult to achieve and burdensome, research into a closed-loop insulin delivery system has been of interest for several decades. This paper provides an overview, from a control systems perspective, of the research and development effort of a particular algorithm--the external physiologic insulin delivery system. In particular the introduction of insulin feedback, based on β-cell physiology, is covered in detail. A summary of human clinical trials is provided in the context of the evolution of this algorithm, and this paper outlines some of the research avenues that show particular promise.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Feedback, Physiological*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Infusion Systems / statistics & numerical data*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / physiology
  • Models, Biological


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin